Ubuntu Server


Check version: $ cat /etc/lsb-release

On remote server install Fail2Ban:sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install fail2ban

Add folder for SSH keys:mkdir -p ~/.ssh && sudo chmod -R 700 ~/.ssh/

On your local machine create an SSH key pair if you haven't before:ssh-keygen -b 4096

Push SSH Key on local machine to remove server:cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub | ssh ROOT@EXAMPLE.COM 'cat >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys'

Verify SSH key connection, then disable password entry on remote server:vim /etc/ssh/sshd_config

Then change PasswordAuthentication from yes to no, save the file, and finally restart SSH:sudo systemctl restart sshd

Check recent SSH logins:grep "Accepted" /var/log/auth.log

Start a terminal session and type:sudo apt install libpam-google-authenticator To make SSH use the Google Authenticator PAM module, add the following line to the /etc/pam.d/sshd file:

auth required pam_google_authenticator.so

Also, so we don't get asked for a password, and instead use our SSH key for auth, comment out the line @include common-auth:

#@include common-auth

Modify /etc/ssh/sshd_config – change ChallengeResponseAuthentication from no to yes, so this part of the file looks like this:

# Change to yes to enable challenge-response passwords (beware issues with
# some PAM modules and threads)
ChallengeResponseAuthentication no # CHANGE THIS TO YES

# Change to no to disable tunnelled clear text passwords
#PasswordAuthentication yes

Then add this to the same /etc/ssh/sshd_config file:AuthenticationMethods publickey,keyboard-interactive

In a terminal, run the google-authenticator command.

It will ask you a series of questions, here is a recommended configuration:

  • Make tokens “time-base””: yes

  • Update the .google_authenticator file: yes

  • Disallow multiple uses: yes

  • Increase the original generation time limit: no

  • Enable rate-limiting: yes

Store the 2FA stuff in your favorite auth manager, and keep a copy of the recovery codes.

Restart the sshd daemon using:sudo systemctl restart sshd.service

Digital Ocean, start with LAMP app, otherwise follow these instructions to get LAMP going.

Download WordPress, and setup the WP Config and Htaccess files:

cd /tmp
curl -O https://wordpress.org/latest.tar.gz
tar xzvf latest.tar.gz
touch /tmp/wordpress/.htaccess
cp /tmp/wordpress/wp-config-sample.php /tmp/wordpress/wp-config.php
mkdir /tmp/wordpress/wp-content/upgrade

Now, we copy the contents of the WordPress temp directory to our Apache2 site. We are using a dot at the end of our source directory to indicate that everything within the directory should be copied, including hidden files:sudo cp -a /tmp/wordpress/. /var/www/MY_DIR

Update the ownership with the chown and chmod commands.

sudo chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www/MY_DIR
chmod -R g+s /var/www/MY_DIR
sudo find /var/www/MY_DIR/ -type d -exec chmod 750 {} \;
sudo find /var/www/MY_DIR/ -type f -exec chmod 640 {} \;

Login to MYSQL:$ mysql -u USERNAME -pPASSWORD

Create a MySQL database and user (note these instructions will give the resulting user access to all databases):

CREATE DATABASE databasename;
CREATE USER 'newuser'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON * . * TO 'newuser'@'localhost';

Update the wp-config.php file to reference your new database and user name. Also update the SALT values.

Visit the site in your browser to finish the installation.

Additional PHP extensions

One of the themes I use requires mbstring which you can install like this: $ sudo apt install php-mbstring

Then restart Apache: $ sudo service apache2 restart

Install Ruby dependencies:sudo apt-get install git-core curl zlib1g-dev build-essential libssl-dev libreadline-dev libyaml-dev libsqlite3-dev sqlite3 libxml2-dev libxslt1-dev libcurl4-openssl-dev python-software-properties libffi-dev nodejs

Install Ruby with rbenv, be sure to change 2.2.2 with whatever Ruby version you want:

git clone https://github.com/rbenv/rbenv.git ~/.rbenv
echo 'export PATH="$HOME/.rbenv/bin:$PATH"' >> ~/.bashrc
echo 'eval "$(rbenv init -)"' >> ~/.bashrc
exec $SHELL

git clone https://github.com/rbenv/ruby-build.git ~/.rbenv/plugins/ruby-build
echo 'export PATH="$HOME/.rbenv/plugins/ruby-build/bin:$PATH"' >> ~/.bashrc
exec $SHELL

rbenv install 2.4.1
rbenv global 2.4.1
ruby -v

gem install bundler

Install NodeJS:curl -sL https://deb.nodesource.com/setup_8.x | sudo -E bash - sudo apt-get install -y nodejs

Install Rails, change the version to the one you want:

gem install rails -v 5.1.3
rbenv rehash
rails -v

Install PostgreSQL:

sudo sh -c "echo 'deb http://apt.postgresql.org/pub/repos/apt/ xenial-pgdg main' > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/pgdg.list"
wget --quiet -O - http://apt.postgresql.org/pub/repos/apt/ACCC4CF8.asc | sudo apt-key add -
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install postgresql-common
sudo apt-get install postgresql-9.5 libpq-dev

sudo -u postgres createuser chris -s

# If you would like to set a password for the user, you can do the following
sudo -u postgres psql
postgres=# \password chris

Setting up a project with SQLite:rails new myapp

Setting up a project with PostgreSQL, you may need to edit config/database.yml to match the user you created earlier:rails new myapp -d postgresql

Run Rails dev server so you can access it remotely:rails s -b


Increase file watching limit:

echo fs.inotify.max_user_watches=524288 | sudo tee -a /etc/sysctl.conf
sudo sysctl -p


I had to open up port 3000 to get browsersync on port 3000 to work with my local browser.

Check firewall status: $ sudo ufw status

Allow port access (port/protocal): $ ufw allow 3000/tcp

Remove an allow rule: $ ufw delete allow 3000/tcp


Installing postgres on Ubuntu/Debian for dev

sudo apt update
sudo apt install postgresql postgresql-contrib

Log in to postgres and create the uprise db

sudo -u postgres psql
create database my_db;

Allow passwordless connections for postgres dev:

sudo -u postgres psql
show hba_file;

Copy result of command above, and edit in vim/nano

Change this line:

host    all             all               md5


host    all             all               trust

Restart postgres:

sudo /etc/init.d/postgresql restart

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